Named after Sixtus IV della Rovere (1471-84) as a new hall for papal court assemblies. Well known Florentine artists were asked to do the inside paintings. The completion of the chapel’s decoration was made by Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of Sixtus IV and later pope Julius II. Michelangelo Buonarotti was the one to fresc the vault (1508-1512), which is the most important painting cycle in the world. Twenty years later Michelangelo also did the todays’ famous painting of ‘The Last Judgement’.